Vietnam experienced remarkably rapid economic growth in the past two decades. However, there are constraints to continued growth. Businesses are constrained by the lack of a skilled workforce and private sector growth is constrained by poor infrastructure and an uncertain policy environment. Inequality, particularly for women and ethnic minorities, is a continuing challenge, with 9 million people living below the national poverty line. Gender disparities still exist and Vietnam is one of few countries in which the gender pay gap has widened over the last decade. Ethnic minorities have still not benefitted equally from economic growth – although they comprise just 15 per cent of the population, they account for around half of those living in poverty.