Graduate-entry degrees in which the candidate must prepare (usually over a period of three or four years full-time, under the supervision of a more experienced researcher) a thesis or other portfolio of publishable research, demonstrating a contribution to knowledge in the chosen field. The Quality Assurance Agency categorises doctorates into three types: "subject specialist doctorates", "doctorates by publication", and "professional and practice-based (or practitioner) doctorates". Doctorates in the last category, such as the EdD, DClinPsych, DBA and EngD, have a greater emphasis on applied research and professional practice, however they still contain a substantial research component.
Licentiate degrees vary widely in their meaning, and in a few countries are doctoral level qualifications. Sweden awards the licentiate degree as a two-year qualification at doctoral level and the doctoral degree (PhD) as a four-year qualification.  Sweden originally abolished the Licentiate in 1969 but reintroduced it in response to demands from business.  Finland also has a two-year doctoral level licentiate degree, similar to Sweden's.  Outside of Scandinavia, the licentiate is normally a lower level qualification. In Belgium, the licentiate was the basic university degree prior to the Bologna Process and was approximately equivalent to a bachelor's degree,   while in France and other countries it is the bachelor's-level qualification in the Bologna process.  In the Pontifical system, the Licentiate in Sacred Theology (STL) is equivalent to an advanced master's degree, or the post-master's coursework required in preparation for a doctorate (. similar in level to the Swedish/Finnish licentiate degree), while other licences (such as the Licence in Canon Law) are at the level of master's degrees.