Othello is referred to as a "Barbary horse" () and a "lascivious Moor" (). In he denounces Desdemona's supposed sin as being "black as mine own face". Desdemona's physical whiteness is otherwise presented in opposition to Othello's dark skin: "that whiter skin of hers than snow". Iago tells Brabantio that "an old black ram / is tupping your white ewe" (). In Elizabethan discourse, the word "black" could suggest various concepts that extended beyond the physical colour of skin, including a wide range of negative connotations.