Unless Stalin does. He, even if not alone, must share the guilt of war; whatever the errors of Britain and France, it was his pact with Hitler in August 1939 that gave the green light. And the total of Stalin's victims in peace-time in his own country—no serious estimate is below 11m, some much higher—far exceeded those that Hitler had notched up by 1939. That many died of famine due to forced collectivisation in Ukraine and elsewhere in 1928-33, in deportations of entire peoples later, or, at all times, in inhuman labour camps, rather than by overt execution, lessens his guilt not a jot. At his death in 1953, the labour camps had never been so full.