The divine-right female sovereigns of Renaissance and Reformation Europe have almost always been studied as isolated and exceptional individuals. In various ways, these studies constitute exceptions. Wolf 1993 examines female monarchs across Europe at the start of this period. Nassiet 2007 and Hunt and Whitelock 2010 compare two female rulers of Renaissance and Reformation Europe. Jansen 2008 and Wanegffelen 2008 combine female monarchs with queens lacking sovereign authority throughout early modern Europe. Beem 2006 , Monter 2011 , and Monter 2012 compare female monarchs over even longer periods.
People who say they are personally acquainted with a member of the other Christian tradition are especially likely to see religious similarities between Catholics and Protestants. On the other hand, across the region, those who consider religion important in their lives are more likely than those to whom religion is not important to say the two groups are more different than similar religiously. In Ireland, for example, 43% of those who say religion is very or somewhat important in their lives see the two groups as different, compared with 35% of those who say religion has a less important place in their lives.