We erase the acknowledgment of the primacy of racism at great political risk. Few people seem to remember it, but while Bill Clinton’s racial signaling memorably won him back some white working-class voters, in both the North and the South, it also seems to have cost him black votes. Where Walter Mondale and Michael Dukakis won 89 percent and 88 percent of the black vote in the 1984 and 1988 elections, according to the Joint Center for Political Studies, Clinton’s support dipped to 82 percent in 1992 and 84 percent in 1996. Al Gore grabbed 90 percent running against George W. Bush four years later. Even accounting for the third-party candidacy of Ross Perot (who won single-digit black support both years), Clinton suffered a noteworthy decline.
The new century saw a hardening of institutionalized racism and legal discrimination against citizens of African descent in the United States. Throughout this post Civil War period, racial stratification was informally and systemically enforced, in order to solidify the pre-existing social order. Although technically able to vote, poll taxes , pervasive acts of terror such as lynching in the United States (often perpetrated by groups such as the reborn Ku Klux Klan , founded in the Reconstruction South), and discriminatory laws such as grandfather clauses kept black Americans (and many poor whites ) disenfranchised particularly in the South. Furthermore, discrimination extended to state legislation that "allocated vastly unequal financial support" for black and white schools. In addition to this, county officials sometimes redistributed resources earmarked for blacks to white schools, further undermining educational opportunities.  In response to de jure racism, protest and lobbyist groups emerged, most notably, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1909. 
Research that produces nothing but books will not suffice.
- Kurt Lewin